Commercial Cattle Farming

A few things for your consideration when developing a Commercial Cattle Herd

     The criteria for selection, or selling points, of good cows for your commercial cattle herd depend on size, quality, age, condition, stage of pregnancy, and market price. You should select breed and cow size to match your feed resources and topography. Local ranchers or Extension personnel can give you an idea of what breeds are best suited to your area.

          Crossbreeding (mating animals from two or more breeds) can be an advantage in a commercial cow herd. Capitalizing on the merits of several breeds, plus the extra vigor from crossbred calves, may give you a competitive edge in the market. Remember that advances in genetic merit probably will not be realized for several years.

Purchasing cattle
     There are many sources of good cattle, both registered and commercial. Usually it’s best to purchase from a successful and reputable breeder. They usually sell only sound cattle as breeding animals and they are helpful in giving advice to less experienced producers.

     If you are inexperienced, it might be best to buy good, young, bred cows that have calved at least once. This reduces problems associated with calving heifers. If you purchase open heifers, you should breed them to a bull that has the genetics for easy calving.

Managing a cow-calf herd
     It is ideal to have a controlled breeding season, rather than allowing the bull to run with the cows continuously. A 45- to 60-day breeding season is recommended. The resulting shortened calving season increases the possibility of having a uniform set of calves to sell at market time. Cattle of similar breeding and size usually bring more money. Another advantage is that you can concentrate your work with cows during calving into a short span, instead of having it strung out for months.

     Cattle have a 283-day gestation period. Select breeding dates so that cows will calve at the time of year you desire. Considerations in determining calving season include weather conditions and the ability to match feed resources with the cows’ requirements. In moast areas late fall or winter calving usually is not desirable because rain causes wet, muddy lots and pastures. The adverse weather may increase the incidence of calf scours and pneumonia. Late summer calving is a common practice because of the ideal weather. However, you must feed a high quality ration to nursing cows and calves during winter, when only harvested feeds are available. This greatly increases feed costs. Calving in the spring allows the cows to utilize rapidly growing range and pasture, thus eliminating harvesting costs. However, spring calves may be too young to use all of the milk the cow provides as a result of the excellent nutrition she is receiving. Your Extension agent can discuss the pros and cons of calving seasons with you.

Commercial Cattle Herd Sire
     A quality sire is essential to maintain a good, healthy herd. The rule of thumb is 1 bull to 25 cows. The ratio varies depending on the bull’s age and health, and the size of pasture.

Small herd owners have the following options for obtaining a good-quality bull:

    * You can buy a bull in cooperation with another ranch.
* You can lease or borrow a sire from a neighbor.

     However, using a bull increases the risk of diseases. Bulls also may pose a safety risk, so treat them with respect.

     Another good breeding option is artificial insemination (AI). If you use this method, you should synchronize estrus in the herd for a shortened calving season. This process may require the aid of a veterinarian.

     The last consideration of the breeding season is pregnancy testing the cows. The test helps determine which cows should be culled from the herd to avoid the costs of wintering a cow that is not pregnant. Veterinarians offer pregnancy testing services.

     This aspect of beef cattle management requires experience and skill. If you are inexperienced, it is recommended that you contact your veterinarian and/or Extension agent for advice on calving management. Most Extension agents can provide you with a printed Cow Calf Management Guide.

Working the calves
     One of the simplest ways to add to the value of your calves is to make sure they are well fed, properly castrated, dehorned, vaccinated, and clearly identified. The most important thing to remember when working calves is to stress them as little as possible. You can learn how to castrate, dehorn, and give vaccinations under the supervision of an experienced cattle producer or veterinarian.

     A good vaccination program also is vital to herd health and performance. Your Extension agent and veterinarian are good sources of information on this subject.

     Weaning is accomplished by separating calves from their mothers. Calves should be weaned at approximately 7 to 8 months of age. This gives the cow time to regain body condition after nursing.

     Calves need an ample supply of fresh water and feed. Some producers prefer to creep feed calves prior to weaning. This may help encourage the calves to begin feeding on their own after weaning.

Keeping performance records
     Keeping records enables you to cull poor performers and maintain good overall herd health and vigor. Examples of helpful calf records include birth weight, weaning weight, and average daily gain. Your Extension agent is a good resource for help.

Combinations of breeding, growing, and feeding
     Most calves produced in small commercial herds are marketed as weaned calves weighing from 450 to 600 pounds. Other options include the following:
• Wean the calves, winter them, and sell them as yearlings.
• Creep feed calves while the animals are still nursing, put them on full feed after weaning, and then sell them as slaughter cattle at 12 to 16 months of age.
• Wean calves, winter them on a growing ration, then graze them during spring and early summer and finish them to slaughter weight at 18 to 24 months of age.